Time

■ Human resources—both the number of full-time employees (FTEs)

(sometimes called full-time equivalents) needed on a given task and the number of person-hours that will be utilized

Good estimates lead to great budgeting, which leads to project closure at or under budget and on or before deadline. We can express these categories in terms of costs. When preparing estimates, you should consider the following elements in each of the three listed categories. For example, when considering the project ' s scope, be concerned about the material costs, the costs in terms of time, and the human-resource costs for every task, activity, or phase.

listed categories. For example, when considering the project ' s scope, be concerned about the material costs, the costs in terms of time, and the human-resource costs for every task, activity, or phase.

Get with the Program

Get with the Program

Recall that a group of tasks composes an activity, several activities compose a phase, and at least one—if not more—phases compose a project. Several projects that are all associated with a larger effort can be combined together to form what is called a program.

In a program, each project has its own project manager or managers who report to a chief project manager, one who ' s responsible for choreographing all of the projects together so they come in on time. The Colorado T-REX project, the huge I-25 highway widening project mentioned earlier in this book, might fall into the program category; it could have a chief PM aligning the activities of PMs who are controlling specific projects. One PM builds a bridge, another widens a highway for light rail, and yet another handles all right-of-way procurement.

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