1. How many ways can a project be declared final?
2. Select all the PMI-recognized standard project management phases.
In what ways would not having thorough requirements identification, documentation, and metrics adversely impact your project? (Select all that apply.)
A. Scope may arbitrarily enlarge
B. Can't tell who the customer is
C. Don©t know what deliverable to develop
D. Can©t tell when the project is complete
E. Can©t tell when the project is successful
D. Sponsors may back out
The is the component that authorizes the project to begin.
A. Customer request
B. Concept document
C. Project charter
D. Project sponsor When should you make a recommendation to kill a project? (Select all that apply.)
A. When costs far outreach the budgeted amount the project was originally given
B. When an activity is insurmountable
C. When the elapsed time used for one or more tasks far outreaches time estimates
You ' re the project manager for a small project that is in closing phase. You prepare closure documents and take them to the project sponsor for sign-off. She tells you that the documents are not needed because the project is so small. What should you tell her?
A. OK, sorry to bother you.
B. You are the one who needs to sign off on the documents showing that the project is officially closed.
C. I can have a stakeholder sign in your place.
P. I ll just go ahead and sign them instead.
The is the document that defines the height and breadth of the project.
A. Project concept
B. Project scope
C. Project charter
D. Project plan
budget is one predicated on assumptions and initial estimates.
9. Which of these can convey that you've achieved the completion of an interim deliverable?
A. Completion criteria
C. Gantt chart
D. Project sign-off document
10. What will be the outcome of the work breakdown structure (WBS)?
11. Of these, which one thing would a customer be responsible for in the project development process?
A. Review of project deliverables
B. Sign-off of scope document
C. Development of project schedule
12. You're the project manager of a project in which the scope has expanded. What steps must you take to acknowledge the expansion? (Select all that apply.)
A. Modify the project charter
B. Modify the project concept definition document
C. Obtain a new sign-off on the project charter
D. Obtain a new sign-off on the project concept definition document
13. When taking over an incomplete project, what item should be of most interest to the new project manager?
A. Project concept document
B. Project charter
C. Project scope document
D. Project plan
14. In the IT world, which of these statements about a project manager is the most true?
A. The PM doesn't have to have any IT background.
B. The PM should have a minimum of IT background.
C. The PM should be moderately IT
P. The PM should be heavily IT oriented.
15. In the project management world, what entity is responsible for signing the project charter?
B. Project sponsor
P. Project manager
16. Select the component that belongs in the controlling phase of the project, not the initiating (requirements formulation) phase.
A. Risk definition
B. Risk quantification
C. Risk response development
P. Risk control
17. What signals the end of the planning phase?
A. The project team begins to execute the tasks in the project plan
B. The formal signing of the project scope document
C. When the hardware and software comes in
P. The formal signing of the project plan document
E. When upper management frees up the money for the project budget
18. When developing the requirements for the project, what must you do to each requirement?
A. Provide a place for project sponsor sign-off
B. Provide a place for customer sign-off
C. Link each with a specific customer need
D. Link each with a separate project step
E. Provide metrics by which you can assess the requirement
19. Two different sets of "criteria" must be alluded to in the project scope document. What are the names of the required criteria? (Select two.)
20. A well-written change-control process should include which of the following components? (Select all that apply.)
A. The type of change requested
B. The amount of time the change will take to implement
C. The cost of the change
D. How to obtain approval for additional funds and/or time
E. The stages at which changes are accepted
21. Given the standard IT project, which cost estimating technique would be the most beneficial?
E. Linear regression
22. What is the best way to prevent scope creep?
A. Make sure the requirements are thoroughly defined before the project begins.
B. Put a proviso in the charter that no additions to the project will be allowed once it's underway.
C. Alert the sponsor that you will not be taking any change requests after the project starts.
D. On your project intranet site, supply a button, labeled "Nice-To-Have," that the user can check for changes that aren't really necessary.
23. Which of the following is not a true statement about cost estimating?
A. Cost estimates are provided by team members.
B. Cost estimates make up the project budget.
C. Cost estimates have a quality factor built into them.
D. You should average all cost estimates.
24. Select all project elements that may benefit from management input.
A. Review of project deliverables
B. Sign-off of scope document
C. Development of project schedule
D. Prioritization of project steps
25. Who is responsible for assembling the project's team members?
A. Project sponsor
B. Project stakeholders
C. Project customer
P. Project manager
26. What are the main types of milestones? (Select all that apply.)
C. Task P. Minor E. Activity
27. _are the elements that might have a direct impact on the length of the project scope.
C. Opportunities P. Capabilities E. Constraints
28. Which of these are not elements of a work breakdown structure (WBS)? (Select all that apply.)
29. What are the two types of charts that you might utilize in a typical project management plan to denote the project's tasks?
E. Critical Path
30. What are the three areas of estimation that you'll be interested in when preparing your project schedule?
D. Skill levels
31. When would you use your negotiation skills on a project that's well underway? (Select all that apply.)
A. When you want a certain set of individuals on your project team
B. When you're running a high-level project in which you could augment the outcome by adjusting certain tasks
C. When you want a raise
D. When you're attempting to get better hardware for the same money
32. Suppose that a corporate organizational change occurs that affects your team. Who should handle the communication of this news, and how soon should it be communicated?
A. Project sponsor, immediately
B. Project sponsor, not immediately urgent
C. Project manager, immediately
D. Project manager, not immediately urgent
33. At a minimum, how many reviews will your project plan go through?
34. What analysis should you perform to see if the proposed scope change request should be elevated to the sponsor and stakeholders or can stay within the confines of the project manager and the project team?
35. In which process do you compare budgeted costs versus actual?
A. Capacity analysis
B. Metrics measurement
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C. Variance analysis
D. Status measurement
36. A milestone should have, along with its description, these two components.
A. Success criteria
B. Entry criteria
C. Completion criteria
D. Exit criteria
E. Deliverable criteria
37. When you want to compare the ratio of budgeted versus actual hours or dollars spent on a task, which type of financial variable will you use?
38. What are the three basic types of changes that someone might bring to a project, changes which may represent deviations in scope?
A. Design change
B. Schedule change
C. Monitoring change
D. Cost change
E. Methodology change
39. When is it your job as project manager to also manage the people who are your team members?
A. Only when authorized to do so by stakeholders
B. Only when authorized to do so by the team member' s regular supervisor
40. What are some team member issues that you will have to get involved in as a people manager? (Select all that apply.)
A. Team member reports to you that another team member is performing substandard work
B. Stakeholders come to you requesting a schedule change
C. Top performer slacking off
D. Management rumor mill is saying layoffs are in the offing
41. In what process do you determine whether there is enough money in the budget or if there are enough hours left to complete the project?
A. Earned value analysis
B. Earned income proration
C. Estimated portion analysis
D. Estimated profitability analysis
42. What are some team dynamics that might come into play as your project unfolds? (Select all that apply.)
A. One team member works longer hours than the others
B. One or more team members has to leave the team
C. Team isn't focused—being going in divergent ways
D. Team is fragmented along the lines of special interests
43. How many outflows are there from the closing phase?
44. What is one important step that new project managers might overlook when faced with a possible scope deviation?
A. Telling the customer no
B. Determining an alternative solution
C. Alerting vendors
D. Complaining to the sponsor
45. Select the three most common project constraints.
F. Other company projects
46. What resources are released once the project has been closed? (Select all that apply.)
B. Human resource
A project can be declared complete because its deliverables have been created, or because the success and completion criteria have been met. A project can also be canceled, or the resources just wind up being depleted requiring cancellation. For more information, see Chapter 13.
You can remember the old poison antidote, syrup of IPECaC (leaving out the "a"), to assist you with this. Initiating, planning, executing, controlling, and closing are the five distinct project management phases. For more information, please see Chapter 1.
By not providing adequate requirements formulation, you might have a rough feel for what deliverables you're providing, but you certainly couldn't absolutely pinpoint them. You won't be able to tell when the project's complete or when it's successful, and as a result, the scope might enlarge without you being aware of it. You'll probably be able to tell who the customer is. For more information, please see Chapter 6.
It is the signing of the project charter that authorizes the project work to go forward. Dor more information, please see Chapter 2.
When the elapsed time taken for one or more tasks far outreaches your initial time estimates, it's time to visit with the stakeholders and project sponsor to see if you need an extension, not to kill the project. If the sponsor loses interest, it's time to talk with the sponsor, not necessarily to pull the plug on the project. Dor more information, see Chapter 10.
The sponsor is the one who must sign off on completion of the project, whether successful or unsuccessful. Just as the sponsor is authorized to expend resources to bring forth the project's deliverables, so the sponsor must also close down the project and thus release the resources. Dor more information, see Chapter 13.
The project scope document details the various components that will go into the project to make it happen. The project scope document includes things like the enumeration of the deliverables, the end product that's expected, the risks associated with the project, the budget and any spare funds that may be available to augment the budget, rules and regulations that may impact the project, and so on. Dor more information, please see Chapter 3.
A top-down budget is one in which you 're allocated a given amount of money in which to complete a project. Because of this you'll have to rely on estimates and assumptions in order to apportion the money in each area in which you require it. Dor more information, see Chapter 9.
One of the uses for a milestone is to signal that you've completed one of the deliverables that are to be obtained
from the project. Dor more information, please see Chapter 3.
The outcome of your WBS will be the project ' s deliverables! Dor more information, see Chapter 8.
A more formal approach to the sign-off of the deliverables is a project phase called acceptance testing, where users actually test out the new software to make sure it works correctly and that it does what they need it to do. Dor more information, please see Chapter 4.
Anytime there ' s a significant expansion or modification to the project, the project charter must be modified and the project sponsor must sign off anew on it. Dor more information, please see Chapter 2.
The project ' s scope document should be of most interest to the new project manager. Dirst, if the project scope doesn ' t match the concept document and charter, the project manager has a problem. Second, the scope denotes the amount of work involved in the project and, if inaccurate, may result in project overruns both in budget and resource terms as well as schedule. Dor more information, please see Chapter 5.
In an ideal project management world, the IT project manager isn't any different than the PM that' s building a bridge, sinking an oil well, or mapping the Amazon. Wonderful communications skills are the biggest asset any project manager can have. Dor more information, please see Chapter 1.
The project sponsor is the one who signs the project charter. Dor more information, please see Chapter 2.
You go through a full-bodied risk assessment process while you're in the initiating phase of the project. You define risks associated with each requirement, try to quantify their impact on the requirement, and prepare a response for each risk that you've identified. You control risks as they appear when you're in the controlling phase of your project. Dor more information, please see Chapter 5.
After the sponsor has formally signed the project plan, you've finished the planning stage and now move into executing. In the PACE methodology, you would now enter the activating phase. Dor more information, see Chapter 8.
While it's good to boil the requirements down to separate project steps, that's not always possible. However, you should always strive to word the requirements in such a way that you can assess their success and completeness by some metric. Sponsors and customers don't need to sign off on individual requirements. Dor more information, please see Chapter 6.
You should include both the success criteria and the completion criteria in your project scope document. Success criteria are the things that you'd expect to occur in order to be able to declare the project a success. Completion criteria are the items that must be accomplished to complete the project. Dor more information, please see Chapter 3.
The amount of time and money a change will require are outcomes of a change-control process, not inputs to the process. Dor more information, please see Chapter 5.
The bottom-up cost estimating method is recommended for most IT projects that do not result in a product or service that your company will be reselling. The reason for this is that you're managing the project from a pure "what's it gonna'
cost?" methodology, rather than "how much can we expect to make per unit?" You begin your estimating at the smallest of tasks and work your way up. For more information, see Chapter 7.
The best way to avoid scope creep as much as possible (you're never going to totally avoid it) is to make sure the project's requirements have been thoroughly fleshed out before the project starts. For more information, see Chapter 11.
Cost estimates do not make up the project budget; they act as an input to the budget. Cost estimates are provided by the team members who will be performing the task they're estimating. You typically build in some sort of quality factor (65%, for example) and administrative expense; and you average cost estimates, meaning that you tell your estimator to use an average, not an exact number. For more information, see Chapter 7.
In order to facilitate management buy-in to a given project, one of the options that can be considered is to allow management to review and approve project deliverables. For more information, please see Chapter 5.
The project manager is the one who will assemble the team members the project. The PM may certainly have input from the sponsor, stakeholders, or customers, but it is the PM who decides what the formation of the team should be. For more information, please see Chapter 4.
There are major and minor milestones. Major milestones denote a significant event in the project. Minor milestones are set for less major events, but events that need to be recognized nonetheless. For more information, see Chapter
There©s a long list of things that can be considered constraints— elements that could potentially lengthen the scope of the project. Corporate priorities, suitable members for the project team, and budget restrictions are a few. Dor more information, please see Chapter 4.
A WBS tells what you're going to do, when you're going to do it, who you'll use, how much time will be needed, and the predecessor/successor relationship. Dor more information, see Chapter 8.
Most projects will utilize a Gantt chart—basically a grouping of task blocks put together to reflect the time that each task is going to take relative to a calendar, along with any precursors or successors the task may have. If you were to take some sticky notes and stick them on a flip chart, writing on each note the task, the date it starts, the date it ends, the duration it'll take, along with all precursors and successors, you'd essentially have a PERT chart. PERT charts are capable of showing interrelationships between tasks that a Gantt chart cannot. You'll use PERT charts on very large projects, whereas most small to medium-sized projects will work fine with Gantt charts. Dor more information, see Chapter 7.
You're interested in what you'll use, who'll do the work and how much the effort will cost, both in terms of materials and time. Dor more information, see Chapter 9.
In high-level projects that have a lot at stake and are under very high visibility, you could use your negotiation skills with the stakeholders and sponsors to try to slim down some of the requirements so as to bring the project in sooner, utilizing less budget, or with greater quality. Dor more information, see Chapter 12.
The project sponsor will be the one who s given authority to spread the news first. She should direct you to immediately alert your team of the news. Dor more information, see Chapter 9.
You ' l l write your project plan then submit to the stakeholders for their review. After you make the recommended changes you' l l then submit it to the sponsor for review. If there are no additional changes the sponsor will sign-off on the finalized project plan. Dor more information, see Chapter 8.
You should run a variance analysis on the proposed deviation. You do this by estimating the amount of time the additional tasks the deviation requires will take, and the additional costs. You then compare this to tasks that you' ve already planned and more or less fit the tasks involved with the deviation. If you can't find a fit, then the tasks represent additions to the scope. You run the variances to see how far over you would be if the new work was added in, and you then have a good feel for how far out of scope the deviation will take you. Dor more information, see Chapter 11.
Variance analysis consists of measuring the predicted cost of resource time, dollar expenditures, and elapsed duration of activities, then comparing these to the actual values. Dor more information, see Chapter 10.
A milestone consists of a description, entry criteria, and exit criteria. These criteria detail how we know when we 've entered an area of the project that has resulted in a milestone and how we ' l l exit this milestone to the next section of the project. Dor more information, see Chapter 8.
There are two indexes associated with earned value analysis: cost performance index (CPI)—the budgeted
monetary cost of a task versus the actual—and schedule performance index (SPI), the budgeted hours for a task versus actual. Dor more information, see Chapter 10.
A scope deviation can represent itself in the form of a change in the design of the project, a schedule change (typically a reduction in schedule), or a budget change of some kind. Of these, the design change may have the most far-reaching ramifications in terms of scope alteration. Dor more information, see Chapter 11.
As a project manager, your team members are under your leadership until the project's over. Dor more information, see Chapter 12.
You'll be directly involved with team members when you find that one of your better workers is, for some reason, not getting her work done as before. You'll also wind up using your people management skills when someone else comes to you to report that another team member isn't working as well as they should be. You have to deal with stakeholders requesting a schedule change before it ever gets to the individual team member level. And you shouldn't pay attention to the gossip mill. Dor more information, see Chapter 12.
The process of examining financial variables to determine where you're at in a project is called earned value analysis. Dor more information, see Chapter 10.
When a team loses its focus, it also loses it sharpness and the project begins to go in different directions. Likewise, when teams split out into special interest groups or cliques, the project suffers as well. In either case, it's up to you as project manager to manage these very real people situations. Dor more information, see Chapter 12.
You'll create closure documentation that includes items such as lessons learned and the sign-off for the closure. You'll also release the resources of the project. For more information, see Chapter 13.
When faced with the possibility of a serious scope deviation, the PM should determine if there are alternatives that, while compromising the scope, may not have as much impact as the proposed deviation. For more information, see Chapter 11.
Time (schedule), budget, and quality maintain a delicate see-saw balance with one another, and it is important that project managers keep close eye on the three. For more information, please see Chapter 1.
You would release resources that were allocated for the project. That would include hardware, human resources, contractors, software, and other such resources. Vendors, while a resource, are released as they supply the things that you're purchasing—they're not released at closure time. The customer isn't a resource that's released. For more information, see Chapter 13.
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What you need to know about… Project Management Made Easy! Project management consists of more than just a large building project and can encompass small projects as well. No matter what the size of your project, you need to have some sort of project management. How you manage your project has everything to do with its outcome.