Key Terms

Balanced matrix structure An organization where organizational resources are pooled into one project team, but the functional managers and the project managers share the project power.

Composite structure An organization that creates a blend of the functional, matrix, and projectized structures.

Customer/user The person(s) who will use the project's deliverables.

Deliverable A verifiable, measurable product or service created by a phase and/or a project.

Functional structure An organization is divided into functions, and each employee has one clear functional manager. Each department acts independently of the other departments. A project manager in this structure has little to no power and may be called a project coordinator.

Influencers Persons who can positively or negatively influence a project's ongoing activities and/or the project's likelihood of success.

Kill point The review of a phase to determine if it accomplished its requirements. A kill point signals an opportunity to kill the project if it should not continue.

Negative stakeholder A stakeholder who does not want a project to succeed. He or she may try to negatively influence the project and help it fail.

Performing organization The organization whose employees or members are most directly involved in the project work.

Phase The logical division of a project based on the work or deliverable completed within that phase. Common examples include the phases within construction, software development, or manufacturing.

Phase exit The review of a phase to determine if it accomplished its requirements.

Phase gate The review of a phase to determine if it accomplished its requirements.

Phase-end review The review of a phase to determine if it accomplished its requirements. A phase-end review is also called a phase exit, a phase gate, and a kill point.

Positive stakeholder A stakeholder who wants a project to exist and succeed. He or she may try to positively influence the project and help it succeed.

Product life cycle The life cycle of the product a project creates. For example, a project can create a piece of software; the software then has its own life cycle until it becomes defunct.

Project life cycle The collection of phases from the start of a project to its completion.

Project management office (PMO) A business unit that centralizes the operations and procedures of all projects within the organization. The PMO supports the project manager through software, templates, and administrative support. A PMO can exist in any organizational structure, but it is most common in matrix and projectized structures.

Project management system The defined set of rules, policies, and procedures that a project manager follows and utilizes to complete the project.

Project stakeholder Anyone who has a vested interest in a project's operation and/or its outcome.

Chapter 2: Managing a Project

Project Management Made Easy

Project Management Made Easy

What you need to know about… Project Management Made Easy! Project management consists of more than just a large building project and can encompass small projects as well. No matter what the size of your project, you need to have some sort of project management. How you manage your project has everything to do with its outcome.

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