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• Safety People need safety and security; this can include stability in life, work, and culture.

• Social People are social creatures and need love, approval, and friends.

• Esteem People strive for the respect, appreciation, and approval of others.

• Self-actualization At the pinnacle of needs, people seek personal growth, knowledge, and fulfillment.

Herzberg's Theory of Motivation

According to Frederick Herzberg, a psychologist and authority on the motivation of work, there are two catalysts for success with people:

• Hygiene agents These elements are the expectations all workers have. They include job security, a paycheck, clean and safe working conditions, a sense of belonging, civil working relationships, and other basic attributes associated with employment.

• Motivating agents These are the elements that motivate people to excel. They include responsibility, appreciation of work, public recognition for a job well done, the chance to excel, education, and other opportunities associated with work aside from financial rewards.

This theory says that the presence of hygiene factors will not motivate people to perform, as these are expected attributes. However, the absence of these elements will demotivate performance. For people to excel, the presence of motivating factors must exist. Figure 9-5 illustrates Herzberg's theory of motivation.

McGregor's Theory of X and Y

Douglas McGregor's theory states that, from their perspective, management believes there are two types of workers, good and bad, as seen in Figure 9-6. The theory goes on to state that management actually shifts from position to position, depending on the worker and the conditions that warrant the behavior of the manager:

• X is bad. These people need to be watched all the time, micromanaged, and cannot be trusted. X people avoid work, shun responsibility, and lack the aptitude to achieve.

• Y is good. These people are self-led, motivated, and can accomplish new tasks proactively.

Figure 9-5

Hygiene agents do nothing to motivate, but their absence will cause performance and morale to decline.

High r

Motivating Agents

Promote performance

Opportunity Responsibility a Appreciation E Recognition *§ Education

Expected Hygiene Agents

-jj Job security & Paycheck

Acceptable working conditions Relationships

Project Management Made Easy

Project Management Made Easy

What you need to know about… Project Management Made Easy! Project management consists of more than just a large building project and can encompass small projects as well. No matter what the size of your project, you need to have some sort of project management. How you manage your project has everything to do with its outcome.

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