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Figure 9-6

Management believes that "X" people are bad and "Y" people are good.

X People

Y People

X People

Y People

Ouchi's Theory Z

William Ouchi's theory is based on the participative management style of the Japanese. This theory states that workers are motivated by a sense of commitment, opportunity, and advancement. Workers in an organization subscribing to theory Z learn the business by moving up through the ranks of the company.

Ouchi's theory also credits the idea of "lifetime employment." Workers will stay with one company until they retire because they are dedicated to the company that is, in turn, dedicated to them.

EXAM TIP If you need a way to keep McGregor's X and Y and Ouchi's Z theories separate in your mind, think of this: X is bad; Y is good; Z is the best.

Expectancy Theory

Expectancy theory states that people will behave based on what they expect as a result of their behavior. In other words, people will work in relation to the expected reward of the work. If the attractiveness of the reward is desirable to the worker, she will work to receive it—people expect to be rewarded for their effort.

Project Management Made Easy

Project Management Made Easy

What you need to know about… Project Management Made Easy! Project management consists of more than just a large building project and can encompass small projects as well. No matter what the size of your project, you need to have some sort of project management. How you manage your project has everything to do with its outcome.

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