Answers

1. D. Noise is anything that interferes with the transmission and understanding of the message. Distance is an example of noise. A, a fax machine, is an example of a decoder. B is incorrect; ad-hoc conversations are informal conversations. C, contractual agreements, are a type of formal communication. For more information, see the introduction to Chapter 10 in the PMBOK.

2. C. Management is requesting a communications management plan, which details the requirements and expectations for communicating information among the project stakeholders. A is incorrect, since a roles-and-responsibilities matrix depicts who does what and who makes which decisions. B, the scope management plan, is also incorrect because this plan explains how changes to the scope may be allowed, depending on the circumstances. D is not a valid choice for the question. For more information, see the PMBOK, Section 10.1.

3. D. Lessons learned and historical information from a previous project are ideal inputs to communications planning. A, B, and C are incorrect because these choices do not fully answer the question. Lessons learned from previous, similar projects are the best tool to identify stakeholders' requirements for communication. For more information, see the PMBOK, Section 10.1.1.2.

4. B. Using the formula N (N - 1) / 2, where N represents the number of stakeholders, gives us 496 communication channels. A, C, and D are incorrect. These values do not reflect the number of communication channels on the project. For more information, see the PMBOK, Section 10.1.2.1.

5. C. This is a tough question, but typical of the CAPM and PMP exams. The question asks how many more communication channels exist. You'll have to calculate the new value, which is 231, and then subtract the original value, which is 171, for a total of 60 new channels. A is incorrect. 171 is the original number of communication channels. B is incorrect because this value reflects the new number of communication channels. D is not a valid choice. For more information, see the PMBOK, Section 10.1.2.1.

6. A. The project sponsor is the source of the memo, since this is the sender of the message. B, C, and D are all recipients of the memo, not the sender, so they cannot be the source of the message. For more information, see the introduction to Chapter 10 in the PMBOK.

7. D. Team members that are not located physically close together can be a communications constraint, since it can be tougher to communicate when distance between team members exists. A, B, and C are all incorrect, since these are not project communications constraints. For more information, see the PMBOK, Section 10.1.1.4.

8. D. RACI charts do not show project performance, but accountability of the resources involved in the project. A, B, and C are incorrect, since these choices do present project performance. For more information, see the PMBOK, Section 10.3.3.1.

9. A. Paralingual is a term used to describe the pitch and tone of one's voice.

B, feedback, is a request to confirm the information sent in the conversation.

C, effective listening, is the ability to understand the message through what is said, facial expressions, gestures, tone, pitch, and so on. D, active listening, is the process of confirming what is understood and asking for clarification when needed. For more information, see the PMBOK, Section 10.2.2.1.

10. C. An exception report is typically completed when variances exceed a given limit. A is incorrect. Progress reports describe the progress of the project or phase. B is incorrect because this is not a valid answer. D, a trends report, is an analysis of project trends over time. For more information, see threshold in the PMBOK glossary.

11. A. Noise is the correct answer, since their phone calls are distracting from your message. B, C, and D are incorrect, as they do not answer the question. For more information, see the introduction to Chapter 10 in the PMBOK.

12. B. Project meetings should have a set time limit. A, C, and D are incorrect answers, although these are good attributes of project team meetings. For more information, see the introduction to Chapter 10 in the PMBOK.

13. A. Greater than 50 percent of a message is sent through nonverbal communications. B, C, and D are incorrect. For more information, see the introduction to Chapter 10 in the PMBOK and the section titled "Examining Communication Factors and Technologies" in this chapter.

14. C. Lessons learned takes place throughout the project life cycle, not just at the end of the project or its phases. A, B, and D are incorrect choices. For more information, see the PMBOK, Section 10.2.2.4.

15. D. Lessons-learned documentation helps future project teams complete their projects with more efficiency and effectiveness. A, B, and C are incorrect, since each statement does not reflect the intent of lessons-learned documentation: to help future project teams. For more information, see the PMBOK, Section 10.2.2.4.

16. C. The project currently has 13 team members, and next week, seven additional team members will come aboard, thus making a total of 20 team members. Using the formula N (N - 1) / 2, where N is the number of identified stakeholders, the communication channels equal 190. A, B, and D are all incorrect choices. For more information, see the PMBOK, Section 10.1.2.1.

17. C. Labor issues are not part of performance reporting. A, B, and D are all part of performance reporting. For more information, see the PMBOK, Section 10.3.

18. D. When information is sent, it is considered to be transmitted. A, B, and C are all incorrect choices. For more information, see the introduction to Chapter 10 in the PMBOK.

19. D. George and the customer's relationship can allow clearer communication on the project objectives than what may be expressed in the project contract. The contract should take precedence on any issues, but direct contact is often the best way to achieve clear and concise communication. A is an incorrect choice because the focus is on personal gain rather than the good of the project. B is incorrect, since the customer does not necessarily need to be educated about the project management process. C is incorrect because the customer is not always right—the contract will take precedence in any disagreements. For more information, see the PMBOK, Sections 10.4 and 12.5.

20. A. The transfer of knowledge is evidence that communication has occurred. B and C do not necessarily mean the knowledge has originated from the source and been transferred to the recipient. D is also incorrect because messages are transmitted, but knowledge is transferred. For more information, see the introduction to Chapter 10 in the PMBOK.

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Active Listening

Active Listening

We can all recall situations where we have utterly failed to listen to what someone else is saying. For various reasons, we are simply not taking in anything useful. How many times have you been introduced to a person by name only to not know what their name is thirty seconds later?

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