Notes

1. Fred P. Brooks, Jr., 1987, "No Silver Bullet: Essence and Accidents of Software Engineering," IEEE Computer vol. 20 (4) pp. 10-19

2. J. Johnson, 1995, "Chaos: The Dollar Drain of IT Project Failures," Application Development Trends vol. 2 (1), p. 47

3. For example, Mark Keil, 1995, "Pulling the Plug: Software Project Management and the Problem of Project Escalation," MIS Quarterly vol. 19 (4), pp. 421-447. From another perspective: M. Lynn Markus & Mark Keil, 1994, "If We Build It, They Will Come: Designing Information Systems That People Will Use," Sloan Management Review, vol. 35(4): pp. 11-25. Also, State of California, Bureau of State Audits. California State Auditor, 1994, The Department of Motor Vehicles and the Office of Information Technology Did Not Minimize the State's Financial Risk In the Database Redevelopment Project.

4. Byron Reimus, 1997, "The IT System That Couldn't Deliver," Harvard Business Review, vol. 75(3) pp. 22-26. This case is discussed by various luminaries in the ensuing pages of the same issue of the HBR.

5. J.G. March and Z. Shapira, 1987, "Managerial Perspectives on Risk and Risk Taking," Management Science, vol. 33 (11). See also Z. Shapira, 1995, Risk Taking: A Managerial Perspective, New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

6. For example, T.H. Kwon and R.W. Zmud, "Unifying the Fragmented Models of Information Systems Implementation," in R.J. Boland and R.A. Hirschheim (eds.), 1987, Critical Issues in Information Systems Research, New York: John Wiley & Sons.

7. Barry Boehm, 1989, Software Risk Management Tutorial, Washington, D.C: IEEE Computer Society Press; Barry Boehm, 1991, "Software Risk Management: Principles and Practices," IEEE Software, vol. 8 (1) pp. 32-41.

10. Mark Keil, Paul Cule, Kalle Lyytinen, and Roy Schmidt, 1998, "A Framework for Identifying Software Project Risks," Communications of the ACM, vol. 41 (11) pp. 76-83.

11. Watts S. Humphrey, 1995, A Discipline for Software Engineering, Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

13. Fred P. Brooks, Jr. 1995, The Mythical Man-Month: Essays on Software Engineering, Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

14. California, note 3.

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