Your approach to creating your work breakdown structure (WBS) might be different from the method we provide; that's fine as long as you cover the basics. Our recommended approach is to start with your mission statement and your selected solution and create three to five high-level objectives. From there, you can parse each of those objectives down into smaller components until you have tasks that actually make sense and are understandable. Tasks should be broken down until they represent an understandable and manageable unit of work.The 80/8 rule is a good one to keep in mind; it states that no task should exceed 80 hours or be less than 8 hours. If a task is longer than 80 hours, it needs to be broken down into smaller components. If you define tasks of less than 8 hours, you'll end up with a scheduling nightmare on your hands.
We'll start with the four major areas we discussed at the opening of this chapter:
1. Devices and media
3. Intrusion detection/intrusion prevention
If you recall from prior chapters, these are not properly written as tasks or even as objectives; they're topic labels. So, let's fix that and create the top-level objectives based on these four areas of concern:
1. Audit and secure devices and media
2. Audit and secure network topology
3. Implement or harden intrusion prevention/detection systems
Now we have a better starting point for our WBS. From here, we can break these down into smaller tasks. We're not going to dig down as deep as you'll need to, because once you get beyond a certain level of detail, the plan is very much dependent on the nature and structure of your organization and how you and your team decide to approach the project. So, don't fight with the structure presented here; use it as a guide to create one that works for you. Also note that where servers or other devices may be called out, the numbers or types of devices may not track with standard networking practices. They are presented as examples of a WBS tree, not necessarily examples of best practices in networking. In reality, you will have more or fewer DNS servers, but we only mention one.You will have a long list of tasks under Task 3.4, "Assess and harden routers, switches, and other network communication devices." We didn't dig down at all levels of the WBS but provided samples of how or where you might develop additional tasks and subtasks. And, while this list is long, it's not as long as your infrastructure security project plan's WBS will end up being. However, this should give you a running start:
1. Audit and secure devices and media.
2. Audit and secure network topology.
2.1 Create secure boundaries using firewalls, DMZs, and proxy servers.
2.2 Create secure remote access.
2.2.1 Secure all Remote Access Servers.
220.127.116.11 Physically secure Remote Access Servers.
18.104.22.168 Secure Remote Access Servers.
22.214.171.124.1 Remove excess administrative accounts.
126.96.36.199.2 Disable all unused services, ports, and protocols.
188.8.131.52.3 Remove all unused applications.
184.108.40.206.4 Disable all unused modems.
2.2.2 Secure remote communications.
220.127.116.11 Evaluate the feasibility and desirability of implementing VLAN.
18.104.22.168 Evaluate the feasibility and desirability of implementing VPN.
2.3 Create secure wireless access.
2.3.1 Change all wireless access points' default settings.
2.3.2 Disable SSID broadcasting, create a closed system.
2.3.3 Enable MAC address filtering.
2.3.4 Evaluate and implement encryption (WEP or WPA).
2.3.5 Filter wireless protocols.
2.3.5 Define IP allocations for the WLAN.
2.3.6 Evaluate VPNs for possible implementation.
2.3.7 Secure users' wireless devices.
2.3.8 Develop wireless policies for users.
2.3.9 Develop wireless policies for IT operations.
2.4 Implement a segmented network.
2.5 Implement network traffic security protocols for sensitive network traffic.
2.6 Deploy network security technologies.
2.6.1 Use Encrypting File System (EFS) or similar file encryption.
2.6.2 Require and use strong user authentication, passwords, and account policies.
2.6.3 Employ the concept of "least privileges" when assigning user rights.
3. Implement or harden intrusion prevention/detection systems.
3.1 Assess security of current IDS/IPS system or evaluate need for implementing IDS/IPS system.
3.1.1 Evaluate intrusion detection system feasibility and desirability.
3.1.2 Inline intrusion prevention system feasibility and desirability.
3.1.3 Network active response system feasibility and desirability.
3.1.4 Host active response system feasibility and desirability.
3.1.5 Network processors feasibility and desirability.
3.2 Assess and harden DMZ or evaluate need for implementing DMZ.
3.3 Assess and harden firewall or evaluate need for implementing additional firewalls.
3.4 Assess and harden routers, switches, and other network communication devices.
4. Harden systems.
4.1 Evaluate physical security and access control to critical servers.
4.1.1 Evaluate and secure access to domain controllers.
22.214.171.124 Evaluate and secure domain controller 1.
126.96.36.199 Evaluate and secure domain controller 2.
188.8.131.52 Evaluate and secure domain controller 3.
4.1.2 Evaluate and secure access to DHCP server.
4.1.3 Evaluate and secure access to DNS server.
4.2 Review and revise administrative accounts on infrastructure servers.
4.2.1 Remove unused or superfluous administrative accounts.
4.2.2 Remove unused or unnecessary non-administrative accounts.
4.2.3 Remove unused rights and privileges.
4.3 Implement strong authentication and password policies on all infrastructure devices.
4.4 Review, record and update (as needed) operating system and application version levels.
4.4.1 Review and record operating system versions on all infrastructure servers.
184.108.40.206 Review and record operating system version on domain controller 1.
220.127.116.11 Review and record operating system version on domain controller 2.
18.104.22.168 Review and record operating system version on domain controller 3.
22.214.171.124 Review and record operating system version on DHCP server.
126.96.36.199 Review and record operating system version on DNS server.
4.4.2 Update operating systems on all infrastructure servers.
188.8.131.52 Update operating system on domain controller 1.
184.108.40.206 Update operating system on domain controller 2.
220.127.116.11 Update operating system on domain controller 3.
18.104.22.168 Update operating system on DHCP server.
22.214.171.124 Update operating system on DNS server.
4.5 Review current status of virus protection software installed on servers.
4.6 Assess and implement server, application, and client-side security technologies.
4.6.1 Secure server traffic traveling on the network.
4.6.2 Secure application and user data traveling on the network.
4.6.3 Secure network access points and network access.
4.6.4 Secure client devices including desktops, laptops, and PDAs.
126.96.36.199 Upgrade all insecure "legacy" operating systems.
188.8.131.52 Update all operating systems with latest revisions, patches, and updates.
184.108.40.206 Update all applications with latest revisions, patches, and updates.
220.127.116.11 Update all virus protection programs.
18.104.22.168.1 Ensure latest virus definition file is loaded.
22.214.171.124.2 Ensure virus program is configured to automatically download the latest definition file from secure server or Internet site (WSUS in Windows or vendor Web site).
126.96.36.199 Enable file encryption for mobile devices.
188.8.131.52 Implement strong passwords.
184.108.40.206 Update user policies to prevent downloading or installing of unsigned programs.
5. Document all infrastructure changes.
5.1 Document changes to all infrastructure configuration settings.
5.2 Document changes to network topology, layout, or structure.
5.3 Document changes to standard operating procedures.
5.4 Document changes to user policies and procedures.
Once you've completed the WBS, you need to go through with your subject matter experts and develop the task details. Details can include task owners, resources, known constraints, or requirements for the task, task duration, task cost or budget, tools or equipment needed for the task, completion criteria, deadline or due date, and any other data relevant to the task and its successful completion. Remember that the functional, technical, and legal requirements should be fully incorporated into the project task detail or they will get lost.This is a great opportunity to review your requirements and go through your task details to ensure that everything is included, before project work starts.
This is also a point at which you should do a scope check and make sure that the WBS describes your intended scope. It's fairly common for the scope described by the WBS to be larger than the stated scope. In fact, this is often the first source of "scope creep." Look at your scope statement and at your WBS and reconcile any discrepancies. For example, you might have stated in your scope statement that something was not part of the project scope but that element shows up in the WBS. Decide if that element should be in or out, then adjust either your scope statement or your WBS accordingly. If there are substantive changes to your scope, check in with your project sponsor to gain agreement as to the modified or updated scope and WBS.
Was this article helpful?
What you need to know about… Project Management Made Easy! Project management consists of more than just a large building project and can encompass small projects as well. No matter what the size of your project, you need to have some sort of project management. How you manage your project has everything to do with its outcome.