Organization Charts and Position Descriptions

Various formats exist to document team member roles and responsibilities. Most of the formats fall into one of three types (Figure 9-2): hierarchical, matrix, and text-oriented. Additionally, some projcct assignments arc listed in subsidiary projcct pians such as the risk, quality, or communication plans. Regardless of the method utilized, the objective is to ensure that cach work package has an unambiguous owner and that all team members have a clear understanding of their roles and responsibilities.

Hierarchical-type Organization Chart

RAM

M at rix-based Responsibility Chart

Role

Responsibilities

Authority

Hierarchical-type Organization Chart

M at rix-based Responsibility Chart

Text-oriented Format

Figure 9-2. Roles and Responsibility Definition Formats

• Hierarchical-type charts. The traditional organization chart structure can be used to show positions and relationships in a graphic, top-down format. Work breakdown structures (WBS) designed to show how projcct deliverables arc broken down into work packages provide a way of showing high-lcvci areas of responsibility. While the WBS shows a breakdown of projcct deliverables, the organizational breakdown structure (OBS) is arranged according to an organization's existing departments, units, or teams with the projcct activities or work packages listed under cach department. An operational department such as information technology or purchasing can see all of its projcct responsibilities by looking at its portion of the OBS. The resource breakdown structure is another hierarchical chart used to break down the project by types of resources. For example, a resource breakdown structure can dcpict all of the welders and welding equipment being used in different areas of a ship even though they can be scattered among different branches of the OBS and WBS. The resource breakdown structure is helpful in tracking projcct costs and can be aligned with the organization's accounting system. It can contain resource categories other than human resources.

• Matrix-based charts. A responsibility assignment matrix (RAM) is used to illustrate the connections between work packages and project team members. On larger projects, RAMs can be developed at various levels. For example, a high-level RAM can define what a project team group or unit is responsible for cach component of the WBS, while iowcr-lcvcl RAMs arc used within the group to designate roics, responsibilities, and ievels of authority for specific activities. The matrix format shows all activities associated with one person or all people associated with one activity. One example of a RAM is a RAC1 (Responsible, Accountable, Consult, and Inform) chart, shown in Figure 9-3.The sample chart shows the work to be done in the left column as activities. The assigned rcsourccs can be shown as individuals or groups. The RAC1 is just one type of RAM, the project manager can seiect other options such as 'lead' and 'resource' designations or others as appropriate for the project.

RACI Chart

Person

Activity

Ann

Ben

Carlos

Dina

Ed

Define

A

R

1

1

i

Design

1

A

R

C

C

Develop

1

A

R

C

C

Test

A

1

1

R

1

R = Responsible A = Accountable C = Consult 1 = Inform Figure 9-3. Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) Using a RACI Format

R = Responsible A = Accountable C = Consult 1 = Inform Figure 9-3. Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) Using a RACI Format

• Text-oriented formats. Team member responsibilities that require detailed descriptions can be specified in text-oriented formats. Usually in outline form, the documents provide information such as responsibilities, authority, competencies, and qualifications. The documents arc known by various names including position descriptions and rolc-rcsponsibiiity-authority forms. These documents can be used as templates for future projects, especially when the information is updated throughout the current project by applying lessons learned.

• Other sections of the project management plan. Some responsibilities related to managing the project arc listed and explained in other sections of the projcct management plan. For example, the risk register lists risk owners, the communication plan lists team members responsible for communication activities, and the quality pian designates those responsible for carrying out quality assurance and quality control activities.

Project Management Made Easy

Project Management Made Easy

What you need to know about… Project Management Made Easy! Project management consists of more than just a large building project and can encompass small projects as well. No matter what the size of your project, you need to have some sort of project management. How you manage your project has everything to do with its outcome.

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