Human Resource Plan

The human resource plan, a part of the project management plan, provides guidance on how project human resources should be defined, staffed, managed, controlled, and eventually released. It is a component of the project management plan. The human resource plan should include, but not be limited to, the following:

• Roles and responsibilities. The following should be addressed when listing the roles and responsibilities needed to complete a project:

o Role. The label describing the portion of a project for which a person is accountable. Examples of project roles are civil engineer, court liaison, business analyst, and testing coordinator. Role clarity concerning authority, responsibilities, and boundaries should be documented, o Authority. The right to apply project resources, make decisions, and sign approvals. Examples of decisions that need clear authority include the selection of a method for completing an activity, quality acceptance, and how to respond to project variances. Team members operate best when their individual levels of authority match their individual responsibilities, o Responsibility. The work that a project team member is expected to perform in order to complete the project's activities, o Competency. The skill and capacity required to complete project activities. If project team members do not possess required competencies, performance can be jeopardized. When such mismatches are identified, proactive responses such as training, hiring, schedule changes, or scope changes are initiated.

• Project organization charts. A project organization chart is a graphic display of project team members and their reporting relationships. It can be formal or informal, highly detailed or broadly framed, based on the needs of the project. For example, the project organization chart for a 3,000-person disaster response team will have greater detail than a project organization chart for an internal, twenty-person project.

• Staffing management plan. The staffing management plan, a part of the project management plan, describes when and how human resource requirements will be met. The staffing management plan can be formal or informal, highly detailed or broadly framed, depending upon the needs of the project. The plan is updated continually during the project to direct ongoing team member acquisition and development actions. Information in the staffing management plan varies by application area and project size, but items to consider include:

o Staff acquisition. A number of questions arise when planning the acquisition of project team members. For example, will the human resources come from within the organization or from external, contracted sources? Will team members need to work in a central location or can they work from distant locations? What are the costs associated with each level of expertise needed for the project? How much assistance can the organization's human resource department and functional managers provide to the project management team?

o Timetable. The staffing management plan describes ncccssary time frames for project team members, either individually or collectively, as well as when acquisition activities such as recruiting should start. One tool for charting human rcsourccs is a resource histogram (Scction 6.5.3.2). This bar chart illustrates the number of hours a person, department, or entire projcct team will be needed cach week or month over the course of the project. The chart can include a horizontal line that represents the maximum number of hours available from a particular resource. Bars that extend beyond the maximum available hours identify the need for a resource leveling strategy, such as adding more rcsourccs or modifying the schedule. An example of a resource histogram is illustrated in Figure 9-4.

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Figure 9-4. Illustrative Resource Histogram

Figure 9-4. Illustrative Resource Histogram o Staff release plan. Determining the method and timing of releasing team members benefits both the projcct and team members. When team members arc released from a projcct, the costs associated with those resources are no longer charged to the project, thus reducing project costs. Morale is improved when smooth transitions to upcoming projects arc already planned. A staff release plan also helps mitigate human resource risks that may occur during or at the end of a project.

o Training needs. If the team members to be assigned are not expectcd to have the required competencies, a training plan can be developed as part of the projcct. The plan can also include ways to help team members obtain certifications that would support their ability to benefit the project.

o Recognition and rewards. Clear criteria for rewards and a planned system for their use helps promote and reinforce desired behaviors. To be effective, recognition and rewards should be based on activities and performance under a person's control. For example, a team member who is to be rewarded for meeting cost objectives should have an appropriate level of control over decisions that affect expenses. Creating a plan with established times for distribution of rewards ensures that recognition takes place and is not forgotten. Recognition and rewards arc pari of the Develop Project Team process (Section 9.3.2.6). o Compliance. The staffing management plan can inciudc strategies for complying with applicable government regulations, union contracts, and other established human resource poiicics. o Safety. Poiicics and procedures that protect team members from safety hazards can be included in the staffing management plan as well as the risk register.

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Project Management Made Easy

Project Management Made Easy

What you need to know about… Project Management Made Easy! Project management consists of more than just a large building project and can encompass small projects as well. No matter what the size of your project, you need to have some sort of project management. How you manage your project has everything to do with its outcome.

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