Control Charts

Control charts are described in Section In this process, the appropriate data is collected and analyzed to indicate the quality status of project processes and products. Control charts illustrate how a process behaves over time and when a process is subject to special cause variation, resulting in an out-of-control condition. They graphically answer the question: "Is this process variance within acceptable limits?" The pattern of data points on a control chart may reveal random fluctuating values, sudden process jumps, or a gradual trend in increased variation. By monitoring the output of a process over time, a control chart can help assess whether the application of process changes resulted in the desired improvements. When a process is within acceptable limits it is in control and does not need to be adjusted. Conversely, when a process is outside acceptable limits, the process should be adjusted. The upper control limit and lower control limit are usually set at ±3 sigma, where 1 sigma is one standard deviation.





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Major Defect

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Potenial Causes


Figure 8-8. Cause and Effect Diagram with Next Level of Detail
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