The project management processes arc presented as discrete elements with we!¡-defined interfaces. However, in practice they overlap and interact in ways that are not completely detailed here. Most experienced project management practitioners recognize there is more than one way to manage a project. The required Process Groups and their constituent processes arc guides for applying appropriate project management knowledge and skills during the project. The application of the project management processes is iterative, and many processes arc repeated during the project.
The integrative nature of project management requires the Monitoring and Controlling Process Group to interact with the other Process Groups, as shown in Figure 3-1. In addition, since management of a project is a finite effort, the Initiating Process Group begins the project, and the Ciosing Process Group ends it.
Project Management Process Groups are iinked by the outputs they produce. The Process Groups arc seldom cither discrete or one-time events; they arc overlapping activities that occur throughout the project. The output of one process generally becomes an input to another process or is a deliverable of the project. The Planning Process Group provides the Executing Process Group with the project management plan and project documents, and, as the project progresses, it often entails updates to the project management plan and the project documents. Figure 3-2 illustrates how the Process Groups interact and shows the level of overlap at various times. If the project is divided into phases, the Process Groups interact within each phase.
An example of this would be the exit of a design phase, which requires customer acceptance of the design document. Once it is available, the design document provides the product description for the Planning and Executing Process Groups in one or more subsequent phases. When a project is divided into phases, the Process Groups are invoked as appropriate to effectively drive the project to completion in a controlled manner. In muiti-phasc projects, processes are repeated within each phase until the criteria for phase completion have been satisfied. Additional information on project life cycles and project phases is provided in Chapter 2.
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What you need to know about… Project Management Made Easy! Project management consists of more than just a large building project and can encompass small projects as well. No matter what the size of your project, you need to have some sort of project management. How you manage your project has everything to do with its outcome.