Chapter Project Time Management

Project Time Management includes the processes required to accomplish timely completion of the project. Table 6-1 provides an overview of the Project Time Management processes, which are as follows:

6.1 Define Activities—The process of identifying the specific actions to be performed to produce the project deliverables.

6.2 Sequence Activities—The process of identifying and documenting relationships among activities.

6.3 Estimate Activity Resources—The process of estimating the type and quantities of material, people, equipment, and supplies required to perform each schedule activity.

6.4 Estimate Activity Durations—The process of approximating the number of work periods needed to complete individual activities with estimated resources.

6.5 Develop Schedule—The process of analyzing activity sequences, durations, resource requirements, and schedule constraints to create the project schedule.

6.6 Control Schedule—The process of monitoring the status of the projects to update project progress and managing changes to the schedule.

These processes interact with each other and with processes in the other Knowledge Areas. Each process can involve effort from one or more persons or groups of persons, based on the needs of the project. Each process occurs at least once in every project and occurs in one or more project phases, if the project is divided into phases. Although the processes are presented here as discrete components with well-defined interfaces, in practice they can overlap and interact in ways not detailed here. Process interactions are discussed in detail in Chapter 3.

Some advanced practitioners distinguish the printed project schedule information (schedule) from the schedule data and calculations that produce the schedule, by referring to the scheduling engine populated with project data as the schedule model. However, in general practice the schedule and the schedule model are referred to as the schedule. Therefore, the PMBOK" Guide uses the term schedule. PMI's Practice Standard for Project Scheduling has additional information on schedule models. On some projects, especially those of smaller scope, defining activities, sequencing activities, estimating activity resources, estimating activity durations, and developing the schedule are so tightly linked that they are viewed as a single process that can be performed by a person over a relatively short period of time. These processes are presented here as distinct processes because the tools and techniques for each are different.

Although not shown here as a discrete process, the work involved in performing the six processes of Project Time Management is preceded by a planning effort by the project management team. This planning effort is part of the Develop Project Management Plan process (Section 4.2), which produces a schedule management plan that selects a scheduling methodology, a scheduling tool, and sets the format and establishes criteria for developing and controlling the project schedule.

The project time management processes, and their associated tools and techniques are documented in the schedule management plan. The schedule management plan is contained in, or is a subsidiary plan of, the project management plan, and may be formal or informal, highly detailed or broadly framed, based upon the needs of the project and includes appropriate control thresholds.

Unless overridden by the Develop Project Management Plan process, the scheduling methodology is developed from the organizational process assets and the selection of a scheduling tool is determined by enterprise environmental factors.

Developing the project schedule uses the outputs from the processes to define activities, sequence activities, estimate activity resources, and to estimate activity durations in combination with the scheduling tool to produce the schedule. When finalized and approved the project team has completed the baseline project schedule for use in the Control Schedule process. As the project activities are being executed, the majority of effort in the time management Knowledge Area will most likely be devoted to the Control Schedule process (Section 6.6) to provide a means to complete the project in a timely manner. Figure 6-1 provides a scheduling overview that shows how the scheduling method, tools and outputs from the Project Time Management processes interact to create a project schedule.

Table 6-1. Project Time Management Overview

Project Time Management Overview

6.1 Define Activities

1. Inputs

1. Scope baseline

2. Enterprise environmental factors

3. Organizational process assets

2. Tools & Techniques

1. Decomposition

2. Rolling wave planning

3. Templates

4. Expert judgment

3. Outputs

1. Activity list

2. Activity attributes

3. Milestone list

6.4 Estimate Activity Durations


1. Activity list 2 Activity attributes

3. Activity resource requirements

4. Resource calendars

5. Project scope statement

6. Enterprise environmental factors

7. Organizational process assets

Tools & Techniques

1. Expert judgment

2. Analogous estimating

3. Parametric estimating

4. Three-point estimates

5. Reserve analysis


1. Activity duration estimates

2. Project document updates

6.2 Sequence Activities

1, Inputs

1. Activity list

2. Activity attributes

3. Milestone list

4. Project scope statement

5. Organizational process assets

2, Tools & Techniques

1. Precedence diagramming method

2. Dependency determination

3. Applying leads and lags

4. Schedule network templates

3, Outputs

1. Project schedule network diagrams

2. Project document updates

6.5 Develop Schedule

1. Inputs t. Activity list

2. Activity attributes

3. Project schedule network diagrams

4. Activity resource requirements

5. Resource calendars

6. Activity duration estimates

7. Project scope statement

8. Environmental enterprise (actors

9. Organizational process assets

2. Tools & Techniques

1. Schedule network analysis

2. Critical path method

3. Critical chain method

4. Resource leveling

5. What-ifscenarioanalysis

6. Applying leads and lags

7. Schedule compression 3. Scheduling tool

3. Outputs

1. Project schedule

2. Schedule baseline

3. Project document updates

4. Schedule data

1. Inputs

1. Project management plan

2. Project schedule

3. Work performance data

4. Organizational process assets

2. Tools & Techniques

1. Progress reporting

2. Performance measurement

3. Schedule comparison bar charts

4. Variance analysis

5. Change control system

6. Project management software

7. Resource leveling

8. What-if scenario analysis

9. Adjusting leads and lags

10. Schedule compression

11. Scheduling too!

3. Outputs

1. Work performance measurements

2. Organizational process assets updates

3. Change requests

4. Project management plan updates

5. Project document updates

Scheduling Schedule Tool I Model

L Generates,

Project Specific Data (WBS, Activities, Resources, etc.)

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