Project Integration Management includes the processes and activities needed to identify, define, combine, unify, and coordinate the various processes and project management activities within the Project Management Process Groups. In the project management context, integration includes characteristics of unification, consolidation, articulation, and integrative actions that are crucial to project completion, successfully managing stakeholder expectations, and meeting requirements. Project Integration Management entails making choices about resource allocation, making tradeoffs among competing objectives and alternatives, and managing the interdependencies among the project management Knowledge Areas. The project management processes are usually presented as discrete processes with defined interfaces while, in practice, they overlap and interact in ways that cannot be completely detailed in the PMBOK® Guide.
Table 4-1 provides an overview of Project Integration Management processes, which are as follows:
4.1 Develop Project Charter-The process of developing a document that formally authorizes a project or a phase and documenting initial requirements that satisfy the stakeholder's needs and expectations.
4.2 Develop Project Management Plan-The process of documenting the actions necessary to define, prepare, integrate, and coordinate all subsidiary plans.
4.3 Direct and Manage Project Execution-The process of executing the work defined in the project management plan to achieve the project's requirements.
4.4 Monitor and Control Project Work-The process of tracking, reviewing, and regulating the progress to meet the performance objectives defined in the project management plan.
4.5 Perform Integrated Change Control-The process of reviewing all change requests, approving changes, and managing changes to the deliverables, organizational process assets, project documents, and project management plan.
4.6 Close Project or Phase-The process of finalizing all activities across all of the Project Management Process Groups to formally complete the project or phase.
The need for Project Integration Management is evident in situations where individual processes interact. For example, a cost estimate needed for a contingency plan involves integrating the Project Cost Management, Project Time Management, and Project Risk Management processes. When additional risks associated with various staffing alternatives are identified, then one or more of those processes may be revisited. The project deliverables may also need to be integrated with ongoing operations of either the performing organization or the customer's organization, or with the long-term strategic planning that takes future problems and opportunities into consideration.
Most experienced project management practitioners know there is no single way to manage a project. They apply project management knowledge, skills and required processes in a different order and with varying rigor to achieve the desired project performance. However, the perception that a particular process is not required does not mean that it should not be addressed. The project manager and project team must address every process, to determine the level of implementation for each process for each project.
The integrative nature of projects and project management can be understood if we think of other types of activities performed while completing a project. Examples of some activities performed by the project management team are:
• Analyze and understand the scope. This includes the project and product requirements, criteria, assumptions, constraints, and other influences related to a project, and how each will be managed or addressed within the project.
• Understand how to take the identified information and then transform it into a project management plan using a structured approach as described in the PMBOK® Guide.
• Perform activities to produce project deliverables.
• Measure and monitor project status, processes and products.
Among the processes in the Project Process Groups, the links are often iterated. The Planning Process Group provides the Executing Process Group with a documented project management plan early in the project and then facilitates updates to the project management plan if changes occur as the project progresses.
This Knowledge Area is concerned with effectively integrating the processes within the Project Process Groups to accomplish project objectives within an organization's defined procedures.
Table 4-1. Project Integration Management Overview
Project Integration Management
Project Integration Management
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What you need to know about… Project Management Made Easy! Project management consists of more than just a large building project and can encompass small projects as well. No matter what the size of your project, you need to have some sort of project management. How you manage your project has everything to do with its outcome.