Reserve Analysis

Project teams can choose to incorporate additional time referred to as contingency reserves, time reserves, or buffers into the overall project schedule as a recognition of schedule risk. The contingency reserve may be a percentage of the estimated activity duration, a fixed number of work periods, or may be developed by quantitative schedule risk analysis (Section 11.4.2.2.). The contingency reserve may be used completely or partially, or may later be reduced or eliminated, as more precise...

Planning Process Group

Those processes required to establish the scope of the project, refine the objectives, and define the course of action required to attain the objectives that the project was undertaken to achieve. The planning processes develop the project management plan and the project documents that will be used to carry out the project. The multi-dimensional nature of project management creates repeated feedback loops for additional analysis. As more project information or characteristics are gathered and...

Procurement Negotiations

Negotiations clarify the structure and requirements of the purchases so that mutual agreement can be reached prior to signing the contract. Final contract language reflects all agreements reached. Subjects covered should include responsibilities and authorities, authority to make changes, applicable terms and governing law, technical and business management approaches, proprietary rights, contract financing, technical solution, overall schedule, payments, and price. Contract negotiations...

Project Management Plan Updates

Elements of the Project Management Plan that may be updated include but are not limited to Procurement management plan. The procurement management plan (Section 12.1.3.1) is updated to reflect any approved change requests that affect procurement management, including impacts to costs or schedules. Baseline schedule. If there are slippages that impact overall project performance the baseline schedule may need to be updated to reflect the current expectations.

Sequence Activities

Sequence Activities is the process of identifying and documenting relationships among activities. Schedule activities are sequenced with logic relationships. Every activity and milestone except the first and last are connected to at least one predecessor and one successor. It may be necessary to use lead or lag time on the logical relationships between activities to support later development of a realistic and achievable project schedule. Sequencing can be performed by using project management...

Project Schedule Network Diagrams

Project schedule network diagrams are schematic displays of the project's schedule activities and the logical relationships among them, also referred to as dependencies. Figure 6-4 illustrates a project schedule network diagram. A project schedule network diagram can be produced manually or by using project management software. It can include full project details, or have one or more summary activities. A summary narrative accompanies the diagram and describes the basic approach used to...

Risk Audits

Risk audits examine and document the effectiveness of risk responses in dealing with identified risks and their root causes, as well as the effectiveness of the risk management process. The project manager is responsible for ensuring that risk audits are performed at an appropriate frequency, as defined in the project's risk management plan. Risk audits may be included during routine project review meetings, or separate risk audit meetings may be held. The format for the audit and its...

Technical Performance Measurement

Technical performance measurement compares technical accomplishments during project execution to the project management plan's schedule of technical achievement. It requires definition of objective quantifiable measures of technical performance which can be used to compare actual results against targets. Such technical performance measures might include weight, transaction times, number of delivered defects, storage capacity etc. Deviation, such as demonstrating more or less functionality than...

Plan Procurements

Plan Procurements is the process of documenting project purchasing decisions, the approach, and identifying potential sellers (sec Tabic 12-2 and Figure 12-1). It identifies those project needs which can best be, or must be, met by acquiring products, scrviccs, or results outside of the projcct organization, versus those project needs which can be accomplished by the project team. This proccss involves consideration of whether, how, what, how much, and when to acquirc outside support. When the...

Precedence Diagramming Method PDM

PDM is a method used in Critical Path Methodology (CPM) for constructing a project schedule network diagram that uses boxes or rectangles, referred to as nodes, to represent activities and connects them with arrows that show the logical relationships that exist between them. Figure 6-4 shows a simple project schedule network diagram drawn using PDM. This technique is also called Activity-On-Node (AON), and is the method used by most project management software packages. PDM includes four types...

Historical Relationships

Any historical relationships that result in parametric estimates or analogous estimates involve the use of project characteristics (parameters) to develop mathematical models to predict total project costs. Such models can be simple (e.g., residential home construction is based on a certain cost per amount per square foot of space) or complex (e.g., one model of software development costing uses multiple separate adjustment factors, each of which has numerous points within it). Both the cost...

Monitor and Control Risk

Monitor and Control Risk is the process of executing risk response plans, tracking identified risks, monitoring residual risks, identifying new risks, and evaluating risk process effectiveness throughout the project (see Table 11-7 and Figure 11-13). Planned risk responses that are included in the project management plan are executed during the life cycle of the project, but the project work should be continuously monitored for new and changing risks. The Monitor and Control Risk process...

Administer Procurements

Administer Procurements is the process of managing procurement relationships, monitoring contract performance, and making changes and corrections as needed (see Table 12-4 and Figure 12-3). Both the buyer and the seller will administer the procurement contract for similar purposes. Each must ensure that both parties meet their contractual obligations and that their own legal rights are protected. The Administer Procurements process ensures that the seller's performance meets procurement...

Resource Leveling

Resource leveling is a schedule network analysis technique applied to a schedule that has already been analyzed by the critical path method. Resource leveling is used to address schedule activities that need to be performed to meet specified delivery dates, to address a situation where shared or critical required resources are only available at certain times or are only available in limited quantities, or to keep selected resource usage at a constant level during specific time periods of the...

Team Performance Assessment

As project team development efforts such as training, team building, and co-location are implemented, the project management team makes formal or informal assessments of the project team's effectiveness. Effective team development strategies and activities are expected to increase the team's performance, which increases the likelihood of meeting project objectives. Team Performance Assessment criteria should be determined by all appropriate parties and incorporated in the Develop Project Team...

Executing Process Group

Those processes performed to complete the work defined in the projcct management plan to satisfy the projcct specifications. This Process Group involves coordinating people and resources, as well as integrating and performing the activities of the project in accordance with the project management pian (Figure 3-7). 4.3 Direct & Manage Project Execution The dashed circular arrow indicates that the process is part of the Project Integration Management Knowledge Area. This Knowledge Area...

Communications Requirements Analysis

The analysis of the communications requirements determines the information needs of the project stakeholders. These requirements are defined by combining the type and format of information needed with an analysis of the value of that information. Project resources are expended only on communicating information that contributes to success, or where a lack of communication can lead to failure. The project manager should also consider the number of potential communication channels or paths as an...

Relationship Between Project Management Program Management and Portfolio Management

Project management exists in a broader context that includes program management and portfolio management. Strategies & priorities ' Progressive elaboration Disposition or requested changes y * impacts trom changes in oder Project status ' Change requests with impact on other portfolios programs or projects Strategies & priorities ' Progressive elaboration Disposition or requested changes y * impacts trom changes in oder Project status ' Change requests with impact on other portfolios...

Conduct Procurements

Monitor And Control Work Project Dfd

Conduct Procurements is the process of obtaining seller responses, selecting a seller, and awarding a contract (Table 12.3 and Figure 2-2). In this process the team will receive bids or proposals and will apply previously defined evaluation criteria, as applicable, to select one or more sellers who arc both qualified to perform the work and acccptablc as a seller. Many factors can be evaluated in the seller selection decision process, for example Pricc or cost can be the primary determinant for...

Chapter Project Time Management

Project Time Management includes the processes required to accomplish timely completion of the project. Table 6-1 provides an overview of the Project Time Management processes, which are as follows 6.1 Define Activities The process of identifying the specific actions to be performed to produce the project deliverables. 6.2 Sequence Activities The process of identifying and documenting relationships among activities. 6.3 Estimate Activity Resources The process of estimating the type and...

Develop Schedule

Develop Schedule is the process of analyzing activity sequences, durations, resource requirements, and schedule constraints to crcatc the project schedule. Entering the activities, durations and resources, into the scheduling tool generates a schedule with planned dates for completing project activities. Developing the project schedule is often an iterative process. It determines the planned start and finish dates for project activities and milestones. Schedule development can require the...

Communications Management Plan

The communications management plan is contained in, or is a subsidiary of the project management plan (Section 4.2). The communications management plan can be formal or informal, highly detailed or broadly framed, and based on the needs of the project. The communications management plan usually provides Stakeholder communication requirements Information to be communicated, including format, content, and level of detail Reason for the distribution of that information Person responsible for...

Diagramming Techniques

Risk diagramming techniques may include Cause-and-effect diagrams (Section 8.3.2.1). These are also known as Ishikawa or fishbone diagrams, and are useful for identifying causes of risks. System or process flow charts. These show how various elements of a system interrelate, and the mechanism of causation (Section 8.3.2.3). Influence diagrams. These are graphical representations of situations showing causal influences, time ordering of events, and other relationships among variables and...

Direct and Manage Project Execution

Plan Procurement Management

Direct and Manage Project Execution is the process of executing the work defined in the project management plan to achieve the project's requirements. This process requires the project manager and the project team to perform multiple actions to execute the project management plan to achieve the project's objectives. Some of those actions are Perform activities to accomplish project requirements, Create project deliverables, Staff, train, and manage the team members assigned to the project,...

Run Chart

Similar to a control chart without displayed limits, a run chart shows the history and pattern of variation. A run chart is a line graph that shows data points plotted in the order in which they occur. Run charts show trends in a process over time, variation over time, or declines or improvements in a process over time. Trend analysis is performed using run charts. Trend analysis involves using mathematical techniques to forecast future outcomes based on historical results. Trend analysis is...

Cost Performance Baseline

Pmi Cost Baseline

The cost performance baseline is an authorized time-phased budget used to measure, monitor, and control overall cost performance on the project. It is developed as a summation of the approved budgets by time period and is typically displayed in the form of an S-curve, as is illustrated in Figure 7-3. The difference between the maximum funding and the end of the cost baseline is Management Reserve. Figure 7-3. Cash Flow, Cost Baseline, and Funding Display .2 Project Funding Requirements Total...

Group Creativity Techniques

Several group activities can be organized to identify project and product requirements. Some of the group creativity techniques that can be used are Brainstorming. Generate and collect multiple ideas related to project and product requirements. Nominal Group Technique. Enhances brainstorming with a voting process used to rank the most useful ideas for further brainstorming or for prioritization. The Delphi Technique. A selected group of experts answers questionnaires and provides feedback...

Collect Requirements

Collect Requirements is the proccss of defining and documenting the project and product features and functions needed to fulfill stakeholder's needs and expectations. The project's success is directly influenced by the carc taken in capturing and managing requirements. Requirements are a condition or capability that must be met or possessed by a system, product, service, result, or component to satisfy a contract, standard, specification, or other forma document. Requirements include the...

Determine Budget

Determine Budget is the proccss of aggregating the estimated costs of individual activities or work packages to establish an authorized cost baseline. This baseline includes all authorized budgets, but excludes management or contingency reserves. Projcct budgets constitute the funds authorized to exccutc the projcct. Budgets may differ from the estimates. Project cost performance wili be measured against the authorized budget. Table 7-3. Determine Budget Inputs, Tools amp Techniques, and...

Source Selection Criteria

Selection criteria are often included as a part of the procurement solicitation documents. Such criteria are developed and used to rate or score seller proposals, and can be objective or subjective. Selection criteria can be limited to purchase price if the procurement item is readily available from a number of acceptable sellers. Purchase price in this context includes both the cost of the item and all ancillary expenses such as delivery. Other selection criteria can be identified and...

Initiating Process Group

Those processes performed to define a new project or a new phase of an existing project by obtaining authorization to start the project or phase. Within the initiating processes, the initial scope is defined and initial financial resources are committed. Internal and external stakeholders who will interact and influence the overall outcome of the project arc identified. If not already assigned, the project manager will be selected. This information is captured in the Project Charter and...

Close Project or Phase

Close Project Phase is the process of finalizing all activities across all of the Project Management Process Groups to formally close the project or phase. This includes finalizing all activities across all the Project Process Groups to formally close the project or phase and transfer the completed or cancelled project as appropriate. The Close Project or Phase process also establishes the procedures to coordinate activities needed to verify and document the project or phase deliverables, to...

Contract Types

Although the firm-fixed-price type of contractual arrangement is typically the preferred type which is encouraged and often demanded by most organizations, there are times when another contract form may be in the best interests of the project when considering all factors. If a contract type other than fixed-price is intended, it is incumbent on the project team to justify its use. The type of contract to be used and the specific contract terms and conditions fix the degree of risk sharing being...

Dependency Determination

Project Management Network Diagram

Three types of dependencies are used to define the sequence among the activities. Mandatory dependencies. The project management team determines which dependencies are mandatory during the process of establishing the sequence of activities. Mandatory dependencies are those that are inherent in the nature of the work being done. Mandatory dependencies often involve physical limitations, such as on a construction project, where it is impossible to erect the superstructure until after the...

Funding Limit Reconciliation

The expenditure of funds should be reconciled with the funding limits that are set by the customer or performing organization on the commitment of funds for the project. A variance between the funding limits and the expenditures will sometimes necessitate the rescheduling of work to level out the load of required expenditures, which is accomplished by placing imposed date constraints for some work packages, schedule milestones, or WBS components into the project schedule. Rescheduling can...

Resource Calendars

Information on which resources such as people, equipment, and material are potentially available during planned activity duration Sections 9.2.3.2 and 12.2.3.3 is used for estimating resource types. Resource calendars specify when and how long identified project resources will be available during the duration of the project. This information may be at the activity or project level. This knowledge includes consideration of attributes such as resource experience and or skill level, as well as...

Create WBS Tools and Techniques

Figure Type Deliverables Ispl

Decomposition is the subdivision of project deliverables into smaller, more manageable components until the work and deliverables are defined to the work package level. The work package level is the lowest level in the WBS, and is the point at which the cost and schedule for the work can be reliably estimated. The level of detail for work packages will vary with the size and complexity of the project. Decomposition of the total project work into work packages generally involves the following...

Close Procurements

Close Procurements is the process of completing each project procurement. It supports the Close Project or Phase process Section 4.6 , since it involves verification that all work and deliverables were acceptable. The Close Procurements process also involves administrative activities, such as updating records to reflect final results and archiving such information for future use. Close Procurements addresses each contract applicable to the project or a project phase. In multi-phase projects,...

Develop Project Charter

Process Flow Diagram Charter

Develop Project Charter is the process of developing a document that formally authorizes a project or a phase and documenting initial requirements that satisfy the stakeholder's needs and expectations. Creating the project charter and its approval formally initiates the project. This also establishes a partnership between the performing organization and the requesting organization or customer, in the case of external projects . A project manager is identified and assigned as early in the...

Process Improvement Plan

The process improvement plan is a subsidiary of the project management plan Section 4.2 . The process improvement plan details the steps for analyzing processes to identify activities which enhance their value. Areas to consider include Process boundaries. Describes the purpose, start and end of processes, their inputs outputs, data required, the owner, and stakeholders of processes. Process configuration. A flowchart of processes to facilitate analysis with interfaces identified. Process...

Organization Charts and Position Descriptions

Various formats exist to document team member roles and responsibilities. Most of the formats fall into one of three types Figure 9-2 hierarchical, matrix, and text-oriented. Additionally, some projcct assignments arc listed in subsidiary projcct pians such as the risk, quality, or communication plans. Regardless of the method utilized, the objective is to ensure that cach work package has an unambiguous owner and that all team members have a clear understanding of their roles and...

Earned Value Measurement

The earned value technique in its various forms is a commonly used method of performance measurement. It integrates project scope, cost, and schedule measures to help the project management team assess project performance. The EVM methodology integrates scope, schedule, and resources, to objectively measure project performance and progress. It is a project management technique that requires the formation of an integrated baseline against which performance can be measured for the duration of the...

Define Activities

Define Activities

Define Activities is the process of identifying the specific actions to be performed to producc the project deliverables. The Create WBS process identifies the deliverables at the lowest level in the Work Breakdown Structure WBS , the work package. Project work packages arc typically decomposed into smaller components calicd activities to provide a basis for estimating, scheduling, executing, and monitoring and controlling the projcct work. Implicit in this process is defining and planning the...

Recognition and Rewards

Part of the team development process involves recognizing and rewarding desirable behavior. The original plans concerning ways in which to reward people are developed during the Develop Human Resource Plan process. It is important to recognize that a particular reward given to any individual will only be effective if it satisfies a need which is valued the most by that individual. Award decisions are made, formally or informally, during the process of managing the project team through project...

What Risk Management Decisions Affect Stakeholders

Project Integration Management j Project Integration Management j The dashed circular arrow ind cales that the process is part of the Project integration Management Knowledge Area, This Knowledge Area coordinates and unities the processes rom the other Knowledge Areas. The projcct management plan and project documents developed as an output of the Planning Process Group wili have an emphasis on exploring all aspects of the scope, time, costs, quality, communication, resources, risks, and...

Project Life Cycle

Schedule Project Management Phases

Typical Cost and Staffing Levels Across the Project Life Cycle Figure 2-1. Typical Cost and Staffing Levels Across the Project Life Cycle Figure 2-2. Stakeholder Influence Over Time Within the context of the generic life cycle structure, a project manager may determine the need for more effective control over certain high-level work deliverables. Large and complex projects in particular may require this additional level of control. In such instances, the work carried out to complete...

T

4.4 Monitor amp Control Project Work 4.S Perform Integrated Change Management The dashed circular arrow indicates that the process is part of the Project Integration Management Knowledge Area. This Knowledge Area coordinate and unifies the processes from the other Knowledge Areas. Figure 3-8. Monitoring amp Controlling Process Group The Monitoring and Controlling Process Group Figure 3-8 includes the following project management processes Tables 3-32 through 3-41 3.6.1 Monitor and Control...