What are the major theories of behavioral and situational leadership

The concept of leadership behavior started to be developed before World War II and is still popular because those theories consider the opportunity for leaders to be trained according to special types of programs.

The best-known classical theory of behavioral leadership is Douglas McGregor's Theory X-Theory Y concept of management. McGregor distinguished between those managers who consider people to pa lazy and uewilling to work ortake responsibility and who use punishment and fear to make them do what they have to (Theory X) and those managers who consider people to naturally be committed to labor if given a correct environment where people are capable of self-education and have the ability to use results-oriented rewards systems to make them more committed (Theory Y).

McGregor's theory reached its purpose of making managers look critically at the style by which they manage people. In MoGregor's description, Theory X managers were described as being clearly "evil" and creating the wrong atmosphere for people to be able to work most efficiently. In modern management acience ond practice, Theory Y managers' approach to managing people is viewed as the best one tor most types of jobs, even fhose that do not necessarily seem to be creative. This was definitely not the case fifty years ago. Needless to say, in a project environment we always strongly recommend Theory Y managers as being the most appropriate for helping people take ownership and increasing involvement and motivation of the project team. Of course these things are normally viewed as one of the key factors of project success.

However, because of its strong ideological orientation, McGregor's approach is too primitive to be sufficient to describe complex situations managers often get into, especially in projects.

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