In order to keep a project on schedule it is important to develop document and action schedules which define every drawing, specification and equipment purchase and indicate time for client approval and status of activity. Typical guidelines for developing procedures and controls for drawings and equipment are illustrated in Figures 1-6 through 1-7. Chapter 7 includes additional controls such as Figure 7-2, Engineers/Drawing Status Report.
These documents should form a basis for weekly review meetings with all those responsible for the work. Any slippage of activity should be noted at the meeting and discussion should center on how to bring that activity up to the current schedule.
To expedite client approval a time period of ten working days after receipt of drawings should be stated for client comments. If comments are not received within this period, client approval is assumed.
Another key element is to define who should receive documents and which engineering or construction group needs to review the material. The coordination procedure may also cover other items such as contract agreements, contractural relationships and subcontractors. Proper planning and control procedures developed at the start of a project are essential for its success.
Figure 1-6. Outline for Coordination Procedure For Engineering/Construction Projects
1. Design Basis
This section outlines basis for design including applicable references to client specifications, scope of work documents and applicable codes.
2. Responsibility Determination - Refer to Figure 1-1
3. Drawings, Specificationsand Models
3.1. It is important to determine early which phase of the project will utilize a scale model instead of drawings.
3.2. A section of the administrative procedures should detail what type of drawings will officially be issued for client approval. Typical key drawings requiring client approval are: Heat & Material Balances, Process Flow Diagnosis, Plot Plans, Piping & Instrument Diagrams (P & I.D.s), Electrical On-Line Diagramming, Building General Arrangements and Preparation Drawings. A period of ten working days after receipt of draw ings should be indicated for client comments. If comments are not received within this time period, approval is assumed.
3.3. Similar to paragraph 3.2, client approval on specifications should be detailed.
3.4. The administrative procedures should outline distribution of drawings and specifications to the client's
3.5. A simple drawing and specification numbering system should be outlined. In addition, a consistent numbering system for equipment, piping, etc., should be stated.
3.6. It is also advisable to indicate the size of drawings to be used and title how the drawing title block will be displayed.
4. Manufacturer's Drawings & Purchase Orders
4.1. A section of the procedures should address bid evaluation requirements for equipment.
4.2. Each purchase order for equipment will require manufacturer to submit specified drawings and details. Certain drawings will require approval prior to fabrication.
5.1. Any change which affects the scope of work needs to be in writing. It is important that the effect of the change on schedule and price be documented to the client before work proceeds.
A combination of reports and controls insure that the project management objectives are met. Depending on the complexity of a project additions or deletions from the below control documents should be made.
6.1. Schedules: A key date schedule indicating major milestones in engineering and/or construction progress should be issued and updated as changes are made. In addition, a detailed schedule of design discipline and/or construction activity is required.
6.2. Equipment status control: Delivery of equipment greatly impacts on the overall schedule. Amonthly control should be prepared indicating required and actual dates for equipment quotations, purchases and delivery. (Refer to Figure 1-7)
6.3. Drawing and Specification Control: All drawings and specifications should be listed. Next to each drawing and specification scheduled start and completion dates should be indicated. Actual start and completion dates and each time the drawing is revised should also be so detailed.
6.4. Progress Control: A summary of engineering and construction progress should be issued monthly. This control usually includes information on schedule, cost forecasts and any change affecting the project.
7. Distribution of Documents
Administrative procedures should indicate distribution of letters, drawings, specifications, etc.
8.1. In general, all correspondence shall indicate Job No. and include a consecutive number for each type of correspondence. A typical heading is as follows:
Subject: Project No. _
Client's Name _
Letter No. L-100
8.2. All conference and telephone conversations to be confirmed.
9.1. It is important to define any special security measures including who has access to information, client confidentiality and other procedures which must be implemented.
To build "quality" into a project, organization is a demanding task and requires good coordination and communication from all participating groups and individuals. Communication skills of the project staff are essential. Two organizational approaches have governed most engineering-construction projects, namely the Matrix/ Departmental Approach and the Team Approach.
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What you need to know about… Project Management Made Easy! Project management consists of more than just a large building project and can encompass small projects as well. No matter what the size of your project, you need to have some sort of project management. How you manage your project has everything to do with its outcome.