The previous chapters have been organized so as to explore the two primary areas of project management, and systems engineering and its management. Interrelationships between these two primary areas have been mentioned in a variety of places in this book but perhaps have not been sufficiently emphasized. In fact, essentially all systems engineering activities occur within some type of program or project context. So the real world connects them whether or not any commentary about them does so. And many commentaries, particularly the collection of extant books, tend to deal with project management or systems engineering, but not both. Indeed, one of the key purposes of this book is to bring together these two interrelated subjects under one cover. This chapter moves even further in terms of the interconnectedness between project management and systems engineering management. This is done by explicitly considering the matter of integrative management in this final chapter.

Integrative management is defined as a set of practices whereby people, processes, tools, and systems are brought together into harmonious interoperation so as to maximize their efficiency and effectiveness. The latter, in turn, are further defined as follows [13.1]:

Efficiency: The capability of producing desired results with a minimum of energy, time, money, materials, or other costly inputs

Effectiveness: The capability of bringing about an effect or accomplishing a purpose, sometimes without regard to the quantity of resources consumed in the process

It is a fundamental responsibility of management to seek these conditions and to act as a prime facilitator. The key word is ''integrated,'' so we are looking for interoperability, wholeness, and organic strength. This means paying attention to an overall strategy for integrative management, as well as developing detailed tactics to implement such a strategy. As a management activity, above all, it means paying attention to the interactions between people, the systems that they are in, and the systems that they are trying to build.

We see integrative management at work in an organization when we are able to observe the following:

• Strong and effective teams

• Deep interest in the technical issues

• Constructive problem solving

• Corporate support for the needs of the project

• Little or no complaining

• Short and productive meetings

• Rapid flow of information

• Effective computer support

• Involved and happy people

Although these do not guarantee integrative management, they are strong indicators. The following sections explore in greater detail the various domains and contexts of integrative management, including:

• Managers as integrators

• Teams as integrators

• Plans as integrators

• The systems approach as integrator

• Methods and standards as integrators

• Information systems as integrators

• Enterprises as integrators

Project Management Made Easy

Project Management Made Easy

What you need to know about… Project Management Made Easy! Project management consists of more than just a large building project and can encompass small projects as well. No matter what the size of your project, you need to have some sort of project management. How you manage your project has everything to do with its outcome.

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