Ultimate Guide to Power Efficiency
During Commerce Department Under-Secretary David Aaron's visit to Beijing, Westinghouse Power Generation announced on April 16 the signing of a 170 million power plant contract in China. Under the terms of the contract, Westinghouse and its consortium partners, Black & Veatch of Kansas City, Kansas, and CMEC of China, will design and supply the turbine and boiler islands for the 700 megawatt, two-unit, coal-fired Yuzhou Power Plant in He Nan Province. The Westinghouse scope includes supply of the turbine-generator equipment and consortium management. The Asian Development Bank is financing the project. Westinghouse currently has eight joint ventures in China and, with its licensees and joint-venture partners, is supplying over 50,000 megawatts of electricity throughout the region. Project construction is expected to begin later this year and the plant will enter commercial operation in three years.
The following discussion focuses on a specific example project in order to illuminate some of the project planning implications. Assume a large, 100,000 source-line (100-KDSI) mission-critical system (for example, control of a power plant) built under contract for a government agency. Figure B-l illustrates the COCOMO-estimated profile for this project. COCOMO would estimate 900 staff-months for development plus 72 staff-months for requirements specification for this project. The schedule required would be 22 months from initiation of design through test, plus 8 months for requirements.
When a client plans a project, the client has a goal to be achieved and projectizes it. To take an example from construction of a power plant, the electric power company as the client clarifies the necessary capacity for additional facilities according to estimated demand, and specifies requirements for the project such as an appropriate period and location. In this process, matters that affect relationships, i.e., which individuals or groups are in charge of which part of the project, are examined at the same time. In the above example of a power plant, a part designed in the initial plan of the plant may be ordered separately at an earlier stage, or may be implemented by the company itself if its has sufficient resources. In addition, relevant companies such as equipment makers, building contractors, and civil engineering contractors will vary according to the scope of construction, and the structure among stakeholders changes depending on whether they contract separately with such...
Meanwhile, a project executor can play a main part in deciding the outline of the design of relationship. In the above example of a power plant, a project to establish a common spare parts supply center for multiple power companies would be such a case. Such projects are often planned from the viewpoint of suppliers that provide spare parts and services, not from the viewpoint of the power company as the client. To be specific, an enterprise whose core business is maintenance of a major part of the power plant and supply of spare parts integrates needs of multiple clients and plans business in consideration of clients with which the enterprise has no relationships. In some cases, the enterprise aims at a more integrated system involving other parts suppliers or distribution companies.
There will be times when the phase-by-phase timing of a project will extend the project completion date beyond an acceptable time. In these cases, the project team will look for opportunities to overlap or fast-track the work. In Chapter 2.1, we illustrate a Project Milestone Schedule for a turnkey power plant. If you look at Figure 2.1b, you will note that the first level of the schedule is based on project phases, and that these phases have been overlapped to reduce the overall project duration to 24 months. The first cut of this schedule, without overlapping, produced a project duration of 36 months.
Example 10.6 Probability elicitation for nuclear power plant accidents An instructive case study that illustrates many of the issues involved in probability elicitation is described by Keeney and van Winterfeldt (1991). The purpose of this study, funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, was to estimate the uncertainties and consequences of severe core damage accidents in five selected nuclear power plants. A draft report published in 1987 for comment was criticized because it
Our elementary school will need a site and several may be under consideration. For each, there are probably several possible layouts, or 'footprints', the school can occupy on the site. There will be alternative exterior access and traffic flow patterns, utility access and playground locations. Inside the building (or, perhaps, buildings, as an alternative), will there be a single or multiple storeys What room layouts are feasible that can lead to pleasing use of exterior light, satisfactory pedestrian flow, energy efficiency and successful interactions among the various educational components Quickly the various combinations become numerous and the design professional's task is to identify all the possibilities and then select the most feasible alternatives for further study.
In recent building renewal projects, energy efficiency measures, facility management systems using CAFM, and due diligence which contributes to supporting activities that consider a building as a management resource are frequently used. However, the management decisions of managers play an important role while making sure of the effect. In other words, this is just the work of finding the target for building performance on line B or line C in Figure 2, as stated previously. Therefore, further consideration is given to the factors supporting this series of activities and that leads to success, by concentrating on the building value chain.
Project objectives are outlined as specific goals to be accomplished and to which status they can be applied. For instance, objectives for a small construction project might include a good location a modern energy-efficient economic design a fully furnished facility a complete set of project documents compliance with all laws, codes, and requirements a standard profit margin and a completion date.
The conclusion was that the Open Design approach on the aspects of non-fixed goals (Aspect 1), less standardisation (Aspect 10), and aiming at synthesis based on valid information of experts (Aspect 3), could have provided a building accommodating more people and requiring substantially lower energy consumption, hence lower costs, at only half of the price actually paid.
The manager of a large corporation wants to sign a contract to build a nuclear power plant in Botswana several thousand miles away from the home office. The project will take several years to build and test. What type of organization will be best for managing this project
For example, from a technical perspective, the main issue for semiconductor technology is assumed to be a decrease in the operating speed of LSI due to minimization, power consumption and manufacturing variance. However, from a managerial perspective, technological programs like the process of developing next-generation semiconductor devices, QTAT and energy conservation are the primary issues. In these consortiums, it is important to motivate researchers to invent and innovate in cooperation with each other by using an incentive system of intellectual property.
Software management efforts span a broad range of domains. While there are some universal themes and techniques, it is always necessary to tailor the process to the specific needs of the project at hand. A commercial software tool developer with complete control of its investment profile will use a very different process from that of a software integrator on contract to automate the security system for a nuclear power plant. There is no doubt that a mature process and effective software management approaches offer much greater value to the large-scale software integrator than they do to the small-scale tool developer. Nevertheless, relative to their business goals, the return on investment realized by better software management approaches is worthwhile for any software organization.
The food waste composting project at Larry's Markets became one of the country's first when it began in the fall of 1991. The project is part of the company's comprehensive environmental program that includes recycling, waste reduction, energy conservation, water management, environmental landscaping, environmental product evaluation, community project support, and more.
It is important to realize that the end of the project is not the same as the end of the goods or services that the project produces. A project to build a nuclear power plant usually ends when the goal of building the plant and making it operate at some expected level of production has been achieved. The plant continues to operate, far into the future,
For instance, a reduction in the energy consumption was defined as an opportunity for a company's cost reduction efforts. It was assumed that a reduction of 20 percent in this line item was feasible, considering a known benchmark. A Black Belt was designated to analyze the problem situation. After some months of work and hundreds of working hours dedicated to finding a solution, the Black Belt concluded the best solution to be applied to the case. The solution proposed the replacement of wiring and light bulbs, among other strategies. The cost of the solution was estimated as a huge sum that was considered not feasible at that time, and the project was canceled. One who was out of the decision chain, might ask Why did it take so long to cancel the project Why didn't the company's executives review the potential solution much earlier and save money by canceling the project How should they deal with the Black Belt and the Six Sigma project team dissatisfaction at this time, considering...
For instance, in the United States, the ESCO (Energy Service Company) business has successfully created a large market as a new business model. It is the kind of investment where a business owner that uses a large amount of energy is presented with a chance of investing in energy-saving equipment that provides low-cost energy and the business owner pays the difference brought by the cheaper energy charge as investment cost over several years. This enables the business owner to execute an energy-saving investment without investment funds to achieve reduction of energy costs.
This technique is utilized chiefly by construction-type projects, rather than design projects you find in a typical IT environment. However, there' s a possibility that you might use it as an alternative method of viewing your cost model. The unit technique requires that you provide some factor that gauges the per-unit cost of your estimates. The power plant construction industry might estimate the cost of building a new plant at so many dollars per kilowatt of capacity the plant will generate. Another unit model might describe costs in terms of the amount of revenue generated per customer served. Perhaps you' l l see a cost estimate that gauges the cost of maintenance per hour of operation.
The intention of green environmentally friendly buildings is to provide environment, economy, health and community benefits by constructing buildings that reduce energy consumption, improve air and water quality, reduce solid waste, conserve our natural resources, have the potential for reducing operating costs, protect our ecosystems and biodiversity, improve employee productivity and satisfaction in the workplace and home, enhance the comfort and health of building occupants, optimize life cycle economic performance, be socially responsible, minimize the demands on the infrastructure of the world and our country, and make a positive contribution to the overall quality of our lives. Going green in building projects has become especially important in the urban environment, where large projects and large corporations want to focus on sustainability and environmental responsiveness during the construction process. More and more owners as well as private and public construction programs...
Hyten became one of the major component suppliers for the Space Program, but did not allow itself to become specialized. When the Space Program declined, Hyten developed other product lines, including energy management, building products, and machine tools, to complement their automotive components and electronics fields.
1993 Added promotion of new energy and energy conservation. 2000 Added support for private companies to strengthen international competitiveness. Energy Conservation Technology Development Department Strategically prioritize and promote R&D projects on industrial, new energy, energy conservation and environmental technology by means of government, industry and academic cooperation.
Project quality management addresses both the quality of the project and the quality of the product that is produced. The quality management of projects is generally the same for all projects, but the quality management of the product produced by the project will vary with the application. What we mean by this is that the measurements and techniques that are used to ensure the quality of the construction of a tool shed will be different from the measurements and techniques for ensuring the quality of the construction of a nuclear power plant.
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