There are five phases to the TPM life cycle, each of which contains five steps:
1. Scope the project.
■ State the problem/opportunity.
■ Establish the project goal.
■■ Define the project objectives.
■ Identify the success criteria.
■ List assumptions, risks, and obstacles.
2. Develop the project plan.
■ Identify project activities. ■■ Estimate activity duration.
■ Determine resource requirements.
■ Construct/analyze the project network.
■ Prepare the project proposal.
3. Launch the plan.
■ Recruit and organize the project team.
■ Establish team operating rules.
■ Level project resources.
■ Schedule work packages.
■ Document work packages.
4. Monitor/control project progress.
■ Establish progress reporting system. ■■ Install change control tools/process. ■■ Define problem-escalation process.
■■ Monitor project progress versus plan.
■ Revise project plans.
5. Close out the project.
■ Obtain client acceptance. ■■ Install project deliverables.
■■ Complete project documentation. ■■ Complete post-implementation audit. ■■ Issue final project report.
The five phases are performed in sequence, with one feedback loop from the monitor/control progress phase to the develop detailed plan phase. This model is adapted from the PMI PMBOK and from an earlier work of one of the authors (Weiss and Wysocki).2
Figure 2.1 shows the TPM life cycle. The following sections walk you through the five phases of the TPM life cycle. Please refer to this figure as you read the following sections.
The first phase of the TPM life cycle is the scoping phase. This phase is the one most often given the least attention. The scoping phase plans the project.
Planning—or rather, effective planning—is painful. For many people, planning doesn't seem like real work. Projects are always behind schedule, so we are tempted to skip planning so that we can get down to the real work of the project. Experience has shown that good planning can actually decrease the time required to complete a project, even taking the planning time into account. Planning reduces risk and, in our experience, can increase productivity by as much as 50 percent. We find it interesting that project teams do not have time to plan, but they do have time to do work over again. What insanity!
Every project has one goal. The goal is an agreement between the requestor and the project manager about the deliverable—what is to be accomplished in the project. The goal tells the project developers where they are going so that, when the project is completed, they know it. Ideally, the scoping phase begins with an exchange of information between a requestor and a provider (usually the project manager). The information exchange usually involves a conversation between the two parties to assure one another that the request is clearly understood and the response, in the form of deliverables, is also clearly understood.
In our TPM life cycle, the goal is bounded by a number of objective statements. These objective statements clarify the fuzziness of the goal statement. Taken as a pair, the goal and objective statements scope the project. They are the framework within which the entire project planning process can be successfully conducted.
State the problem/opportunity. Establish the project goal. Define the project objectives. Identify the success criteria. List assumptions, risks, obstacles.
Launch the Plan
Recruit and organize project team. Establish operating rules. Level project resources. Schedule work packages. Document work packages.
Obtain client acceptance. Install project deliverables. Complete project documentation. Complete post implementation audit. Issue final project report.
Develop Detailed Plan
* Identify project activities.
* Estimate activity duration.
* Determine resource requirements.
* Construct/analyze project network diagram.
* Prepare the project proposal.
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What you need to know about… Project Management Made Easy! Project management consists of more than just a large building project and can encompass small projects as well. No matter what the size of your project, you need to have some sort of project management. How you manage your project has everything to do with its outcome.