Quality Management

Project quality management includes the processes required to ensure that the project will satisfy the needs for which it was undertaken. It includes ''all activities of the overall management function that determine the quality policy, objectives, and responsibilities and implements them by means such as quality planning, quality control, quality assurance, and quality improvement, within the quality system.'' (Guide to the PMBOK.)

Projects are typically part of an organization larger than the project—corporations, government agencies, health care institutions, international bodies, professional associations, and others.

Projects are typically authorized as a result of one or more needs. These stimuli may also be called problems, opportunities, or business requirements. The central theme of all these terms is that management generally must make a decision about how to respond.

Projects are authorized by upper management, which is responsible for setting strategic company goals.

According to Juran and Deming, 85% to 95% of the quality problems that occur in organizations are from processes controlled by upper management.

Quality programs save money. Each improvement in quality will yield benefits to the project that are in excess of the cost of the implementation and operation.

Experiments are used to determine the impact of the different variables. The design of the experiment is a controlled study of the problem. Holding all variables constant and varying one of them is sensitivity analysis. The results will show which variable has the most impact on the process.

The averaging of the five parts that are sampled is called the X bar value. In control charts the two values that are normally plotted on the control chart are the X bar value and the R

value, the difference between the highest and lowest value of the dimension in the sampled parts.

This is the Guide to the PMBOK definition for quality. Stated and implied needs are the inputs to developing the requirements of the product or output from the project.

Quality assurance is all the planned and systematic activities implemented within the quality system to provide confidence that the project will satisfy the relevant quality standards.

Quality must be planned into the product, not inspected in. The design and building of the product should be such that the quality will be designed or built in rather than expecting the inspection of the product to catch the mistakes and defects and rework them into a quality product.

Products that are able to perform and function acceptably but are different technically are graded into different categories. For example, wood is graded according to the number of knots that are present in the wood. The wood performs the function of being structurally sound in all grades, but the desirability of knot free wood leads us to higher grades of wood.

A Pareto diagram is a histogram, ordered by frequency of occurrence, that shows how many results were generated by type or category of identified cause. By using this tool the manager can identify the defects that occurred most often.

This is a check sheet. Check sheets are simple devices that can be used almost anywhere. On them you make a mark in the appropriate category. After many marks are made, they can be added up to give the number of each defect passing the point.

Quality management and project management are very concerned about customer satisfaction.

Common causes are those that are the normal variables produced in the process output when the process is operating normally. Special causes are the causes of variability in the process when the process is not operating normally.

Work results, quality checklists, operational definitions, and the management plan are the items listed in the Guide to the PMBOK as the inputs to the quality control function.

The averaging of the five parts that are sampled is called the X bar value. In control charts the two values that are normally plotted on the control chart are the X bar value and the R value, the difference between the highest and lowest value of the dimension in the sampled parts.

The diagram the manager is using is a cause and effect diagram, also known as a fishbone diagram. These diagrams are often called Ishikawa diagrams as well.

This is an example of variable inspection. If the testing machine had had a light that showed green when the parts were acceptable, then it would have been attribute inspection. We don't know whether sampling or 100% inspection is taking place.

A variable is an actual measurement of some characteristic of a part. An attribute is a yes or no determination of whether the part is good or bad.

One of the most important things in using control charts is that they not only show when the process is out of control but also show when the process is in control and only normal variations are taking place. This means that we have a guide that tells us when we should not be taking corrective action as well as a guide to tell us when we should take corrective action.

In modern quality management the idea of making small incremental improvements is used rather than making up large projects to make giant changes in the operation.

Kaizen means improvement in Japanese. It actually applies to all aspects of life. In terms of quality management it means continuing improvement involving everyone, including managers and workers alike, from the top to the bottom of the organization.

Cost and delays are reduced, production improves, market share increases, and profits go up. Cost to the customer should not go up when quality management is implemented properly.

Capital expenditures should not necessarily go down or up as a result of quality management. Profits should increase.

The benefits should always be greater than the cost of implementing quality management. The benefit-cost ratio should always be greater than one.

The quality plan is part of the overall project plan and is an important input to the project plan.

Quality assurance is all the planned and systematic activities implemented within the quality system to provide confidence that the project will satisfy the relevant quality standards.

The International Standards Organization attempts to ensure consistency in organizations that can be relied upon by their customers. To qualify, an organization must meet six requirements regarding the control of documents, control of records, internal audits, control of nonconformance, corrective action, and preventive action.

The acceptance costs of quality are the things that must be done to ensure that the quality of the product or service is acceptable. This includes the cost associated with inspection and reinspection, the cost of the quality plan, quality assurance, and quality management.

The process is not in control. Although the values of X bar are all within the upper and lower control limits of the process, there is a trend showing five values in a row all increasing. There are several observations on the control chart that can indicate that the process is out of control even though the values measured are within the upper and lower control limits.

The Pareto diagram shows a histogram where the defect classes are arranged in the order of the highest to lowest frequency of occurrence of the defect. It also shows the cumulative percent of defects from the highest to lowest number of defects.

In a scatter diagram a plot is made with two variables. If there is a correlation between the variables and the two variables increase at the same time, it is called positive correlation. If one variable increases while the other variable decreases, it is called negative correlation.

The value of X bar for hour number 7 is the sum of the four observed values for hour 7 divided by 4.

This is 90 / 4 or 22.5. Since this is the number of ten-thousandths of an inch, the correct answer is .00225.

The value of R is the difference between the highest value recorded and the lowest value recorded for the hour.

This value is 28 — ( — 25) or 53. Since this number is in ten-thousandths of an inch the correct answer is .0053.

To calculate the value for R bar, we take the value for R for each hour and find the mean or average value.

Value for R for each hour is:

Hour 1 23456789 10 R 21 52 20 68 86 77 62 31 81 53

The sum of the values is 551, which is 55.1 when divided by 10. Since this number is in ten-thousandths of an inch, the correct answer is .00551.

In sampling inspection the ideal operating characteristic curve would correctly pass or reject all lots that were below or above the AQL point. Any lot that truly had more than the allowed AQL would be rejected, and any lot that had less than or equal to the AQL would be accepted.

When sampling inspection is used, it will discover lots that are above the AQL. These lots are then returned for 100% inspection. When the 100% inspection is done, the defective parts are removed, and the acceptable ones are sent to the customer. As the number of defective parts increases, more lots will have to be inspected 100%. Initially, the quality delivered to the customer will fall, but because of the added work of the 100% inspection, the quality will then improve.

36. Answer: d Five years.

In the Shewhart and Deming cycle, an idea is first identified and planned for implementation. Then an experiment is performed to see if the idea will work. The results are checked, and then evaluated. If the evaluation is positive, the idea is fully implemented, and the next idea is planned.

The Demming cycle refers to the process of making continuous improvements: Plan, Do, Check, Act. In the Demming cycle we plan an improvement, and then we attempt the new process with the change on an experimental level. We check the results and then act to make the permanent improvement.

Because the parts are attribute inspected, we do not have data other than the parts failed to pass a Go—No Go gauge. We know only that an unacceptable number of parts were either above or below the allowed dimension. It is possible that the average for the rejected parts is 2.000 inches. The only thing we know for sure is that the part diameters are greater than 0.000, or they would not exist.

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Project Management Made Easy

Project Management Made Easy

What you need to know about… Project Management Made Easy! Project management consists of more than just a large building project and can encompass small projects as well. No matter what the size of your project, you need to have some sort of project management. How you manage your project has everything to do with its outcome.

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